The Duroc is the most popular pig breed in Europe. The male’s adnexal glands (AGG) play an important role in the processes of sperm preservation and fertilization. The purpose of this study was to establish the sources of extramural vascularization and innervation of the vesicular, prostate and bulbourethral gland of Duroc boars (n=15, age-1,5-2 years) from the farm of the Russian North West region. Methods used: anatomical dissection, histological, contrast angiography, graphic reconstruction.
The vesicular gland is rounded cylindrical, lobulated, pale -pink. Its length is 82.09 ± 12.34 mm and its diameter - 25.47 ± 5.73 mm. It lies above the bladder neck, from the sacrum of the ilium to the middle of the ischial spine.
The prostate gland is unpaired and lies in the pelvic cavity above the urethra. Its width and thickness are 23.57 ± 3.69 and 8.21 ± 3.45 mm, respectively.
The bulbourethral gland is a volumetric, cylindrical shape with rounded edges. Its length is 115.82 ± 17.38 mm and its diameter, measured at the level of the caudal end of the sciatic notch, is 27.64 ± 5.31 mm. Hemocirculation in this gland is carried out through two paired arteries and veins. The extramural circulatory system of the vesicular gland and bladder is a derivative of the urogenital artery. The venous network is combined by numerous anastomoses into a single vascular channel, creating the possibility of the spread of pathologies. The blood supply to the bulbourethral gland is provided by the internal pudendal artery, which also provides the blood entering the penis. The venous network for these organs is the same, and the presence of valves in the vessels ensures the centripetal movement of blood through the internal vein.
The arterial channel of the prostate gland is formed by the vascular branches of the urogenital and internal pudendal arteries. Multiple anastomoses at the level of the microvasculature form a single circulatory network. The outflow of venous blood is carried out cranially to the urogenital, and caudally to the internal vein. The network of blood vessels of the testis and epididymis has no intersystem connections with the vascular channel of the AGG. Only the spermoduct vein forms numerous anastomoses with the vascular network of the vesicular gland.
The innervation of glands is carried out by the pudendal nerve, as well as by the superficial and deep branches emerging from the cranial part of the pelvic plexus. The plexus of the bladder and each of the AGG are formed in the pelvic cavity along the lateral surface of the urethra. They contain somatic, sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers.