The continuous progress in nanoscience has allowed the synthesis of various nanoscale particles, known as nanoparticles or nanomaterials, which harnessing of unique physico-chemical properties is crucial for various bio-applications. Despite the revealed toxicity (nanotoxicity) of nanoparticles in various in vitro and in vivo studies, their careful design for biocompatibility and effective interactions with cellular and tissular organisms has permitted their uses in several fields of research and biomedicine. Interestingly, the ability to synthesize and apply nanoparticles of various properties in veterinary sciences, including reproductive biology, have shown tremendous potentials to influence the routine practices in animal production systems. The current status of nanotechnology applications in animal reproduction indicates motivating prospects for post-collection semen manipulation and protection of high-quality spermatozoa to extend semen preservation and to improve sperm-related biotechnologies such as sperm-mediated gene transfer, sperm sorting and sex-sorting, and cryopreservation. Therefore, the application of nanotechnology-based tools to semen may likely enhance assisted reproductive technologies for biomedical applications and more income to farmers. The present review provides a synopsis of nanoparticle synthesis with potential applications in reproductive sciences, focuses on the current research using nanotechnology-based tools in mammalian spermatozoa, and discusses the future prospects of nanotechnology in boar spermatozoa for fertility improvement.